Figure / Vision China
Most people may not know or care about Nyaa.
In the era of this user has been gradually accustomed to Spotify, Netflix and Steam, a seed site shut down for them, what is the point? Such news may not even be able to see them, after all, in this RSS has been dead everyone is keen on the so-called content of the recommended age, everyone can see what news is no longer by the master of their own.
However, back to ten years ago, back to twenty years ago, in that digital content is far from full of rich and complete era, seed, seed site and seed download sharing software to support the first batch of the Internet world's earliest The explorers of the explorers, the earliest aborigines of the Internet used their freedom and dreams to create an unprecedented open paradise in human history.
Then, everything is gradually gone. Idealism, after all, to the reality, the Internet's spiritual paradise eventually gradually by large companies and their business values a little bit of occupation.
In this process, people enjoy more, also lost a lot.
In 2011, Zuckerberg, rapper Snoop dog on a music event held in Parker Kevin Mazur Getty Images Source: CNBC
Sean Parker, for most of today's people, this is a strange name, for some people, it is that in David & middot; Vinci (David Fincher) movie "social network "(The Social Network) Justin Timberlake (Justin Timberlake) to play the role, for some people, this is a worth billions of dollars of successful investors and entrepreneurs.
But if the time goes back to the nineties years ago, at that time, it was a thunderous name.
At the age of fifteen, he was fifteen-year-old Shawn Fanning on the Internet, and at that time they were discussing the most theoretical physics and hacking techniques, and then they Together in June 1999 founded the Napster, the music file sharing site initial $ 50,000 is raised by Parker, and P2P file sharing concept is Fan Ning conceived out, only within a year, Napster to get the Tens of millions of users.
How Napster works
P2P file sharing through the central server to the user's files are indexed, when a user search the file, put the index has been provided to the user to download the file, the whole process is completed between two private computers, Napster largest The feature is that it only allows music files to share and download. Index, search and download sharing are done through Napster software and servers. With Napster and P2P, users will be able to download and share songs and songs on the web for free, which naturally violates the interests of the major record companies, so the trouble also comes with it.
At the end of 1999, RIAA filed a lawsuit against Napster, which required the site to pay $ 100,000 in compensation for each pirated song, compared with more than 200,000 songs on the Napster server. That is, Napster needs to pay $ 2 billion.
The US record industry has suffered severe shrinking after entering the new century
In fact, 1999 is the last glory of the traditional music industry, IFPI data show that from 1983 to achieve after 17 years of growth, the global CD sales in 2000 reached an unprecedented 2.45 billion, then continued to decline. In 1999, the size of the American music industry reached $ 14.6 billion, and since then it has been depressed.
At the beginning of the 21st century, the early days of the 21st century, the smell of the traditional music industry has been unable to understand and realize the value of the network, in their view, full of sharing, download and free Internet is the largest of the traditional industries Threaten. So, they can not wait to put the ups and downs of the P2P service murder in the cradle. Legal action has become their most sure and the most powerful weapon.
In the course of the lawsuit, Napster also continued to make big, while still in the court and RIAA bargaining, but in the ninth Circuit Court's appeal was dismissed, to March 2001, Napster was eventually issued a ban Shut down P2P services. Although after the Court of Appeals allowed it to continue operation. Napster claims that he has developed technology to prevent 99.4% of the infringement files to share, and the court that this is not enough, requiring the former to the ratio down to zero.
Lawrence Lessig, who has been relieved of copyright restrictions, has been dissatisfied with Lawrence Lessig, who believes that if the proportion of 99.4% is not full, it is not against the war, but against the document Share.
By September 2001, Napster and RIAA had finally reached a settlement that would not only pay $ 26 million to musicians and copyright holders for past infringements, but also pay $ 10 million for future licensing. The user up to 70 million of the site but did not get so much money, so it had to convert the subscription service, but users do not buy it, Napster traffic and the amount of avalanche users decline.
Bankruptcy Napster had had the opportunity to sell to German music company Bertelsmann AG for $ 94 million in 2002 and eventually canceled by the bankruptcy court because the company was once a manager in Germany that could have been involved in improper trading The Until 2008, Napster was acquired by Best Buy for $ 121 million and merged with Rhapsody.
Napster extinguished, but the prairie prairie has been rising.
In this music sharing site is in full swing in 2000, Jed & middot; Mike Kaleb (Jed McCaleb) released eDonkey2000 online. Compared to Napster, it adds swarming functionality, that is, users use the client to upload various parts of the download file through multiple terminals, rather than being limited to a user.
At the same time, eDonkey2000 will be connected to each server together to form a search network. There is also an important improvement, eDonkey2000 search and download the introduction of the HASH value, rather than simply based on the file name to judge.
By 2005, eDonkey2000 did not accidentally receive the RIAA stop and eventually shut down the service, a year later, it and RIAA reached a $ 30 million settlement agreement, and the site page is also replaced by RIAA notice The However, its mechanisms and ideas have been inherited by eMule.
Napster and eDonkey2000 based on the central server (tracker) P2P file sharing service is extremely vulnerable to be completely shut down, so the subsequent second-generation P2P services such as Kazaa and Gnutella invariably began to take the decentralized distributed architecture, And to the third generation is the so-called "dark network" (Darknet), on the basis of the center to strengthen the protection of the user anonymity.
Bram Cohen (Bram Cohen) designed BitTorrent, which is one of the most common and most important P2P sharing protocols, in 2001, when the Napster and eDonkey2000 were introduced and popular in 2001 at the University of Buffalo. The Based on the BitTorrent protocol, a user can generate a torrent by uploading a file, which is a seed on the BitTorrent node.
Each file is divided into pieces (pieces), each user to download to the fragments, the fragments will continue to be the source of other people to download. BitTorrent in the download large files have a unique advantage, this is done in this form.
As long as the uploader continues to make sure that the file is uploaded on the server, it means that it can be distributed to countless people who want to download it, and everyone who downloads via BitTorrent is also uploading it. In other words, the same seed file, while downloading more people, the faster it will be faster.
In the era of BBS and mail group, the Internet became the last country that had not been contaminated by realism in the era of the bursting of the Internet bubble in Silicon Valley and Wall Street. Everyone is immersed in the spirit of freedom, openness and sharing of the original spirit of the Internet, the discipline of the resistance and contempt for that era of Internet users have become a new era of hippies.
They are a big company like Cuban, Warner, EMI, and RIAA, MPAA and others, trying to develop a utopia against the outside world in cyberspace.
As a result, the use of infringing on the Internet illegal way they become the most effective and effective means.
In 2003 the United States, Napster has been shut down, BitTorrent gradually became popular, and in distant Sweden, the organization to promote the free sharing of piracy and set up, and then they set up a seed download site Pirate Bay (The Pirate Bay).
Pirate Bay was first started in Mexico, and then soon returned to Sweden, the entire site is one of the founders of the Pentium three notebook set up, its memory is only 256 MB. At that time, there was not much P2P site inventory, so, Pirate Bay soon came to the fore, by the end of 2004, its users reached about 100 million, the number of seeds is more than 600,000, a year later, its users doubled To 2.5 million. In fact, more than 80% of Pirate Bay users come from outside Sweden, and by mid-2005, it has launched a multi-language version of the site.
P2P became popular after birth and became one of the biggest sources of Internet traffic Source: torrentfreak
In 2004, the most extreme data show that BitTorrent has accounted for 35% of Internet traffic, Cachelogic survey tells us that in 2004, 62% of Internet traffic and P2P, and 53% of which is BitTorrent band To the flow.
In contrast to the physical music industry continues to decline, digital piracy increasingly rampant, which caused the traditional content production and copyright owners of great dissatisfaction. So, the most well-known seed distribution site, the pirate bay is not accidentally eyeing, as their eyes nail.
In 2005, the US High Court ruled that P2P sites need to be responsible for copyright infringement, the major record companies and film studios can therefore infringe on P2P sites litigation. The Supreme Court also provides that any P2P service can be considered as an infringement by touching the following three actions:
In fact, the face of the rapid development of the Internet and technology, the reality often can not quickly keep up with the changes in the times to advance with the times, the Supreme Court's ruling appeared before and after the standard different circumstances.
In 1984, Sony Betamax and Universal Pictures in the lawsuit, the Supreme Court made a ruling with twenty years later, they found Sony's video recorder & quot; applied for commercial obvious non-infringement use & quot ;, announced that even if the technical product The service may be used by the user for infringement, and the company is not responsible for it.
At that time, the Supreme Court not only found that the user at home is not commercial use of the "time-shifting" (time-shifting) function does not constitute infringement, but also support "time shift" is fair use (fair use), the user Non-commercial use & quot; does not have a significant negative impact on the potential market for copyrighted products & rdquo ;. The attitude of the Supreme Court has ensured the healthy and vigorous development of the home video market and laid the foundation for the rise of DVD and Blu-ray technology.
After the birth of P2P in such an unfavorable environment, the pirate Bay fate is also surprising and not surprising.
In 2009, the three founders of Pirate Bay left the court after attending the lawsuit. Photo: Reuters / Bob Strong
Source: International Business Times
In May 2006, 65 police raided the pirate bay in Stockholm's data center, trying to shut down the site, but three days later, Pirate Bay found a new domain name hosting and re-launched. Three years later, the four founders of the site were eventually sentenced to a one-year sentence and a fine of $ 3.62 million to assist in infringing copyright infringement. Pirate Bay was forced to become a seed index site.
By 2010, after the appeal, their imprisonment time was shortened but the fine was inflated to $ 6.5 million. In this year, there was a lawsuit in Hamburg, Germany, MPAA sued broadband provider CB3ROB for Pirate Bay provided six Disney pirated movie connection service, the final court decision CB3ROB stop for the Pirates Bay continue to provide broadband services. So, the pirate Bay again temporarily off the assembly line, but soon it was back as ever.
A month later, as one of the founders died, the pirate bureau ended with dissolution.
Pirate Bay has become the public enemy of the world's copyright agencies, Denmark, Italy, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands ISP are required to block the entrance of the site, so, Pirate Bay and its users had to use the agent, by 2012, the pirate Bay began to use magnetic Link to replace the seeds of large files, in order to save resources and make third-party sites more easily run proxy services. In 2013, the pirate bay said that 8% of the users through the agent to open the site.
Alex's data show that since eleven years after 2003, Pirate Bay has been the world's most visited seed site, until November 2014, it was Kickass over.
The latter was established in 2008, only three years later, it became the US Department of Justice's goal, after a series of domain names were sealed, it moved to the Philippines and registered. Ph domain name. Subsequently, it added an additional domain name including kickass.to, kickass.so, kat.cr, and even plans to replace the domain name every six months to prevent the danger of being blocked.
By 2013, the British High Court ordered the ISP to stop the Kickass domain name resolution, a week later, at the request of RIAA and MPAA, Google also stopped the Kickass crawl.
Since then, this seed site has been Belgium, Ireland, Malaysia, Portugal and other countries of the blockade, Twitter once blocked its links, Steam also set this as a chat message in the shielding keywords, Chrome and Firefox also will It is marked as a dangerous site, it also on the Whois ban list led to the site was off the assembly line.
After being shut down by the Justice Department, Kickass's home announcement
Until 2016, the troubled site was finally shut down by the US Department of Justice in July, with the help of Apple's information, the investigators crossed the iTunes account transaction and logged in to Kickass's Facebook address, Eventually confirmed and arrested in Poland, the head of the site Alte wood & middot; fertile (Artem Vaulin), he was charged with copyright infringement and money laundering charges. Subsequently, the site's domain names have taken the initiative to shut down. The survey shows that from August 28, 2015 to March 10, 2016, Wolin's bank account into more than 28 million euros in deposits.
According to the Justice Department estimates, Kickass is the 69th site of the nation's visit, and this seed site's annual advertising revenue of about 17 million US dollars.
As Kickass shut down, Pirate Bay once again became the world's largest seed site.
BitTorrent has gradually become a yellow flower | Source: Sandvine
Data show that in 2016 the North American Internet download traffic, BitTorrent's proportion has shrunk to only 1.73, if the upload and download the average traffic calculation, online video and streaming media in the top 10 applications accounted for four seats, They accounted for more than half of all Internet traffic last year.
Cisco's report predicts that by 2020, Internet video and IP VoD in the global Internet traffic in the proportion will be close to 82%. It said that in the Internet video growth driven by Internet traffic from P2P as a typical relatively stable traffic evolved into a more dynamic traffic model.
Seed of the era, at the end of Yan.
In the tenth year of Pirate Bay, the first period of the Internet era came to an end.
Swartz in 2012 against SOPA on the activities of Daniel Sieradski, via Wikimedia Commons Source: qz
In this year, RSS and Markdown participants, one of the co-founders of Reddit Aaron & middot; Aaron Swartz (Aaron Swartz) because the use of Harvard University to provide his JSTOR account to download a large number of MIT papers by the school official and The Secret Service was arrested and subsequently charged with 13 federal felonies and may face up to 50 years in prison and $ 1 million in fines, and Swartz refused to plead guilty. Eventually, under the strong pressure of the prosecution body, he did not leave any last words to choose suicide to understand.
Also in this year, Google announced that they will terminate the world's largest RSS reader Google Reader to focus on fewer products, at the same time, launched in 2011 by Google's high hopes and Facebook Confrontation of social products Google+ has in fact failed, its average dwell time is only 7 minutes less, while Facebook's data was nearly 7 hours.
Or in this year, Netflix officially announced the beginning of self-made content, and in the same year launched the drama "House House" (House of Cards), after three years, Netflix annual introduction of self-made content increased by more than 100% Initially tested the water from 2012 to 2016, Netflix homemade drama and film in four years increased by more than 3000%.
All the facts that seem unrelated at first glance are finally brought together. Swartz's death is like a divination, Google Reader shut off like a ghost, Netflix is a prophecy.
In the online video streaming media under the impact of the new Internet forces, the traditional Internet is involuntarily to die. On behalf of the Internet during the culmination of the core content of the RSS and BBS are gradually subsided, P2P sharing and seeds and their birth at the same time the traditional things in this wave and how can it be spared? Seed sites, BT download such content access methods are gradually unified channel distribution channels, streaming media gradually replaced.
The report shows that BitTorrent in the global Internet traffic in 2010 the proportion of about 17.9%, while video streaming media is only 1.4%. In the PublicBT on the 10,000 most popular seed analysis found that 63.7% of the content is copyright infringement and illegal sharing, film and television drama and the proportion of the game were 47.9% and 6.7%, all the existence of infringement, porn is the largest proportion Of the single project, the proportion of up to 35.8%.
Pornography, games and video that share the largest proportion of seed sites in the new era gradually have a new form of access and consumption.
In the early days of the Internet, seed sites were able to help people get a lot of convenience in getting pornographic content, but with the rise and thriving of online porn sites, people found that online viewing was much easier than downloading.
Pornhub data show that the site in 2013 more than 14.7 billion visitors, more than 1.68 million visitors per hour, the user on the site watched a total of 63.2 billion video. By 2016, Pornhub consumed 3110PB of bandwidth throughout the year, with 99GB of video per second, with nearly 91.9 billion videos being watched, with more than 2.3 billion visitors.
Pornhub, Neflix, Steam, the existence of these platforms is to a greater extent obliterated the value of pirated movies and games and the existence of the game, not only more and more users tend to service quality, paid subscription system more reasonable platform. The more deadly problem is that copyright agencies, content production companies and law enforcement agencies are stepping up their efforts to crack down on them.
In May 2017, the world's largest animation seed site was shut down, the site team took the initiative to delete all the information, as early as 2011, this site because the user illegally download and share the seeds of One Piece and Kickass and other sites together To Funimation prosecution, to 2014, this site has even been unknown DDoS attacks and interrupted the service.
Nyaa's death, the roots actually in Europe.
Jack Frederik Wullems of the Netherlands has developed a multimedia player, the filmpeler, which can put images and audio signals on the screen. After networking, users can use the player to play streaming content from the website. At the same time, Woolus also installed for this player contains a hyperlink to the plug-in, click will help users re-allocation to stream the site content. So that no matter whether the user permission to release permission or not can watch the program for free. Anti-piracy agency Stichting Brein so sued Ullez's "spread" rumors violated the Dutch copyright laws.
As the EU and its own have not had similar case rulings, the Dutch District Court to the European Court of Justice to request a request to resolve. In the end, the EU court ruled that the filmpeler was "publicly disseminated" and violated the rights of the copyright owner, and the court also discussed the use of temporary reproduction to ensure the legal use of the standard:
The European Court of Justice also found that third-party infringement of copyright infringement should also bear the corresponding tort liability, and users through the site to obtain other sites piracy resources, even if the site does not store content is also copyright infringement. In such a vigorous ruling, such as Nyaa seed site can only be shut down.
It is not difficult to imagine that the environment will only become more and more difficult for seed sites. In this consumer has been cultivated through the subscription model to enjoy the era of streaming media, P2P sharing has become a vintage of the old princess. And the iPod came out, Walkman and CD out of the times, like a smart phone came out, the game handheld is gradually being cold, P2P sharing and seed download has gradually become more and more minority behavior, or even a A common experience of a ritual.
Since the birth of the Internet so far, since the P2P sharing and seed download to the rise of today's streaming media, we carefully observe the history of the edges and corners, you will find the Internet has experienced a centralization from the center to the center of the cycle, people Has been accustomed to and enjoy the Google, Facebook, Apple these big companies and Netflix, YouTube, Spotify, Steam such a large platform.
In the age of the Internet, people want the most is how to make everyone more free on the Internet more convenient, and now, people only care about how to make the gap between reality and the Internet is getting smaller and less desperate to try The Internet and the reality of bonding between the plane without any difference between the country.
People do not even care about what they have, but only care about their own use, everyone is trying or unconsciously let themselves become the Internet world of the nerve wave traveler, each person's real name are eliminated in the consumerism pleasure Frenzy, leaving only the future of the future of the unknown billions of days and 100 billion nights in the future waiting for today's carnival we & mdash; this is not only the epitome of the Internet era, but also our time and human portrait.
Domestic P2P sharing sites than foreign counterparts earlier felt the threat and pressure, as early as six years ago, China's largest resource sharing site VeryCD began to clear eD2K link began to transition, the site of the last update is in 2013 January 3, in the year-end inventory, the most popular Chinese film called "adolescence 3".
After the golden age of the finest Internet, P2P sharing and seed download has become a deadly remnant of history. And the adolescence of the Internet is finally over.